Testing Resources for COVID-19
AMP has assembled a list of available resources on testing for COVID-19. This page will change as new information becomes available. Please check back frequently for updates.
For test developers and labs who have questions about the EUA process or spot shortages of testing supplies call the FDA’s COVID-19 Diagnostic Tests Hotline toll-free 24 hours a day: 1-888-INFO-FDA, choose option * OR email email@example.com
US Department of Health and Human Services (HHS)
SARS-CoV-2 Positive Control & Reference Material Vendors
(please send firstname.lastname@example.org additions/corrections to this list)
Viral Loads in Respiratory Specimens and Other Clinical Samples
(curated by AMP member Dr. Richard L. Hodinka)
- Zou L. et al. 2020. SARS CoV-2 viral load in upper respiratory specimens of infected patients. NEJM DOI:10.1056/NEJMc2001737 - viral loads in respiratory secretions are high early in the course of illness, viral loads in the nose may be higher than in the throat, and that respiratory viral loads may be similar in both symptomatic and asymptomatic individuals. How this correlates with culturable virus remains to be determined.
- Pan Y. et al. 2020. Viral load of SARS CoV-2 in clinical samples. Lancet Infect Dis DOI:10.1016/S1473-3099(20)30113-4. – viral loads in throat swab and sputum specimens peaked at ~5-6 days after symptom onset, viral loads varied from 10e2 to 10e11 with median loads of 10e4 in throat swabs and 10e5 in sputum, sputum samples generally showed higher viral loads than throat swabs, viral loads were highest earlier after illness onset, individuals can be infectious before disease onset, and stool samples were positive in 9 of 17 confirmed cases (53%), but viral loads in stool were less than in respiratory tract.
- Kim J.Y. et al. 2020. Viral load kinetics of SARS CoV-2 infection in first two patients in Korea. J. Korean Med Sci. 35(7):e86. DOI.org/10.3346/jkms.2020.35.e86. – viral load kinetics in 2 confirmed cases with mild to moderate illness, examined serial specimens of combined NP/OP swabs as representative of upper respiratory tract (URT) compared to sputum as representative of lower respiratory tract (LRT) specimens, also collected serial serum, plasma, urine, and stool samples, viral load was highest during early phase if illness (3-5 days from symptom onset), viral load decreased there after over course of 1-2 weeks, viral loads were similar in URT and LRT specimens and kinetics over time were similar, sickest patient had virus detected in urine and stool from end of first week of illness until recovery.
- Wolfel R. et al. 2020. Virological assessment of hospitalized cases of coronavirus disease 2019. medRxiv preprint DOI.org/10.1101/2020.03.05.20030502. – used throat, nasopharyngeal and sputum specimens, no discernable differences in viral loads or detection rates when comparing NP to OP, average load in swabs was 10e5 compared to 10e6 for sputum, viral loads were high (10e8 at day 5) and peaked in respiratory tract early on in illness (before day 5), viral loads declined more slowly in sputum than swab specimens, isolation of infectious virus from throat swabs and sputum was successful, blood and urine never yielded virus or RNA, but viral RNA was found in stool at high levels.
- Kam K-Q. et al. 2020. A well infant with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) with high viral load. Clin Infect Dis. DOI/10.1093/cid/ciaa201/5766416. – well (asymptomatic ) infant had persistently positive NP swab specimens through day 16 following admission, patient was also positive in blood early in illness course, highest viral loads in NP on day of admission, found viral RNA in stool of infant as well, but on day 9, but not day 2 of admission. Asymptomatic detection of virus may have major implications for human-to-human transmission in the community.
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